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Fashion and Textiles volume 2Article : 23 Cite this article. Metrics details. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between athletic clothing and physical activity in overweight children. The perceptions of athletic clothing among overweight children were also investigated.

Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 35 children between the ages of 9 and 14 who were considered overweight according to their body mass index. Literature on social physique anxiety and body image provided the conceptual framework for the study.

San francisco fat adult girls then maybe more

Physical activity participation, or movement of the body which burns calories, holds health benefits that extend to physical, psychological, and social health for children, adolescents, and youth American Heart Association, Reduced blood pressure, development of social skills, decreased depressive symptoms, and decreased risk-taking behaviors are some of the specific health benefits to children and youth 5—18 from participating in physical activity Janssen and LeBlanc ; Taras Such health benefits would be particularly important to children, adolescents, and youth who have elevated health risks such as being overweight or obese.

In addition to being in poorer physical health as compared to their healthy-weight peers, overweight children are at risk for a of negative psychological effects Strauss The most troubling effects include low quality of life, low self-esteem, and increased suicidal behaviors resulting from body dissatisfaction in young girls Dave and Rashad ; Strauss With the positive health benefits that can be experienced from participation in physical activity, scholars have analyzed several barriers to this participation in children such as teasing and weight criticism Faith et al.

However, there has been little research into the relationship between physical activity, clothing, and overweight children. Definitions of children, adolescents, and youth by age vary among scholars and governmental agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention b defined adolescents as those within the age rangeschool-aged children between 6 and 11, and young children between 2 and 5. The Association for Childhood Education International defined early childhood as between the ages ofand middle childhood as between 6 and For the purpose of this study, the researchers will refer to their participants who range in age from 9 to 14 as children.

San francisco fat adult girls then maybe more

When referencing literature, the researchers will utilize the language consistent with the authors, and will identify the specified age range. Despite the positive health benefits of physical activity, several researchers found a decline in participation for individuals under 18 years of age. Authors found declines in activity for both boys and girls during all ages in childhood Trost et al.

Scholars reported that boys decreased their physical activity more than girls especially after the age of 12 Telama and Yang and between the ages of 11—12 and 15—16 Brodersen et al. These limited physical activity behavior patterns are important as patterns developed during childhood typically continue into adulthood Patnode et al. Scholars have found several barriers to physical activity. Adolescent girls between the ages of 13 and 15 were concerned others might question their heterosexuality Slater and Tiggemann Some overweight children aged 8—10 felt uncomfortable participating in physical activity due to differences in coordination and speed abilities when compared to non-overweight children Wrontniak et al.

Finally, Basterfield et al. Peer criticism is another barrier to physical activity, as preadolescent children in the fifth and sixth grades have been shown to fear weight criticism Jensen and Steele and adolescent girls between the ages of 13—15 fear teasing Slater and Tiggemann Fear of bullying is an additional barrier as overweight and obese students between the ages of 11—15 are more likely to be bullied than their healthy-weight peers Brixval et al.

This bullying was especially problematic for obese girls between the ages of 11—15, who were nearly three times as likely to be bullied than their healthy-weight peers Brixval et al. Weight-based peer victimization can have deleterious effects on both psychological and physical well-being. Adolescents with an average age of Due to the negative impact of obesity on the quality of life and the increasing rates of overweight and obese children, it is important to understand all barriers to participation in physical activity.

One barrier that has been overlooked is clothing. For example, Aaronson found an increase in confidence among adults participating in competitive sports when they wore garments that were deed for a particular sport, such as running shorts.

The importance of clothing in the child and adolescent experience cannot be understated. In comparison to other age groups, adolescents aged 12—17 place the heaviest importance on fashion and physical appearance Beaudoin and Lachance Brand name clothing can be used by adolescents to project their desired self-image, facilitate acceptance by their peers, or for mere appreciation from their social group Beaudoin and Lachance In the case of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12—17, the brands that cater to their healthy-weight peers are not likely to offer clothing that fits their bodies Romeo and Lee Lack of clothing options prevents adolescents from dressing in the typically accepted way for their age group, which presents a barrier to ordinary social interaction and exercise; this problem may be more pronounced for girls, as they are more likely to be socially excluded by their peers if they are overweight King and Puhl Finding garments that fit well was also a frequent problem for adults of different body shapes and sizes Liechty et al.

Adult consumers often blame their bodies instead of the garment when ready-to-wear garments fit poorly LaBat and DeLong LaBat and DeLong found that adults who perceive their clothing as fitting poorly often generate negative feelings about their bodies. Studies reported that overweight and obese adults often missed the benefits of finding fashionable and well-fitting clothing, because brands routinely stocked limited options for the plus-size market, particularly in brick and mortar stores Peters In addition to this marginalization, plus-size women experienced anxiety when trying on athletic clothing and dissatisfaction with their bodies if the exercise clothing did not fit; this pre-exercise anxiety deterred some plus-size women from exercising Christel Body image and social physique anxiety have also been heavily researched in relation to barriers to physical activity for children and adolescents.

Smith found adolescents aged 11—18 did not want to swim due to body image issues related to wearing a swimsuit. When adolescent girls were unhappy with their body shape, they most commonly desired to be thinner while boys desired to be bigger Ricciardelli and McCabe This body dissatisfaction can develop much earlier than adolescence, beginning in both boys and girls between the ages of 5—7 Tremblay and Limbos Several barriers to physical activity in children, adolescents, and youth are related to social physique anxiety SPAor the degree to which people become anxious when others observe or evaluate their physique Hart et al.

This anxiety SPA has been found to mainly affect male and female adolescents, though females report a greater amount of SPA and more coping mechanisms to deal with this anxiety Kowalski et al. Adolescent girls have ly reported social situations such as being in school locker rooms or changing for gym class as a precursor to experiencing SPA Sabiston et al. Additionally, adolescent girls between the ages of 15—16 reported not wanting to swim because they felt embarrassed or that others would judge them James For young adult men and women between the ages of 17—23, SPA has been found to indirectly influence motivations and behaviors regarding physical activity Brunet and Sabiston For example, peer victimization has been found to be positively related to SPA and negatively related to physical activity in children and adolescents aged 8—18 Storch et al.

In summary, scholars have conducted several studies in order to understand different barriers to participation in physical activity for children and adolescents. Due to the lack of research studies focusing on overweight children and athletic clothes, the researchers chose to use a qualitative approach. The camp coordinator supported and gave written permission to conduct the research.

Many studies on barriers to participation in physical activity for children or adolescents used primarily white, middle-class participants Brunet and Sabiston ; James ; Slater and Tiggemann Each child was measured and weighed by the camp staff to ensure they were eligible to participate in the camp. The study was explained to the parents and children, and they were given a consent form to review and. Incentive for participation included a one-in-six chance of winning a sports equipment item.

All interested parents and children ed the consent forms that evening and did not require extra review time of the consent form. To answer the research questions, the researchers utilized an inductive qualitative approach using both focus groups and individual interviews.

Focus groups were chosen because they allow for openness and promote disclosure; additionally, participants often ask questions of each other, which can lead the group into unplanned discussions about new phenomena related to the topic Wilkinson Semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to gain a deeper understanding of the findings from the focus groups. Interviews were conducted until theoretical saturation of the data was reached or no new patterns emerged Miles and Huberman The first author and one research assistant conducted the focus groups and individual interviews.

The boys and girls were separated for the focus groups. The sessions were held in a small conference room at an oval table so each child was able to equally see the researcher and research assistant. The first author used some of the following strategies for conducting interviews and focus groups with children as outlined by Gibson To gain rapport and build trust with the children, the first author first asked them what their favorite activity at camp was. To facilitate understanding of the study and expectations of the children, the researcher explained that there were no wrong answers, just different points of view.

The researcher said that all ideas were welcome even if they were different from what others had said in the group, and they did not have to answer if they did not feel comfortable. The children were also asked to take turns when responding, and to respect what everyone had to say. The participants were not required to raise their hands before speaking, but they all adopted this technique during the focus group, as it seemed this made them comfortable.

To encourage detailed answers, participants were told that they could take as much time as they needed to answer, and it was okay to ask for clarification. During the focus groups, the researcher asked the following questions: a what are some things you like about clothes? The researcher remained flexible during the focus groups and allowed the participants to guide the sessions; however, if the conversation was too far off topic, the researcher brought the participants back on topic by asking another question.

During the focus groups, a research assistant recorded notes and the level of agreement among participants Krueger and Casey At the end of the session, the researcher summarized some of the findings, and asked about the most important ideas discussed during the session and whether any important topics had been missed.

San francisco fat adult girls then maybe more

All data were audio-recorded and transcribed, and all participants were ased a pseudonym. The researchers analyzed the data following techniques described by Miles and Huberman including data reduction, data display, and drawing and verifying conclusions. The entire process of analysis was cyclical and iterative. During the first round of coding, the researchers ased descriptive codes to each line or group of lines relating to one idea, and a codebook with code definitions was developed.

The researcher developed more refined questions for the in-depth, follow-up interviews for both the boys and girls after analyzing the focus group data. In the follow-up interviews, the researchers asked 25 questions to the boys and 17 questions to the girls about their experiences with athletic clothing and preferences for certain garments using a semi-structured interview guide Barbour

San francisco fat adult girls then maybe more

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