Added: Conrad Inman - Date: 06.03.2022 16:52 - Views: 10294 - Clicks: 4419
Background: Studies show that people bereaved by suicide often feel a strong need for professional help. It is hypothesized that aspects related to suicide bereavement, such as stigmatization, shame or guilt, hinder help-seeking process of the bereaved.
However, little is known about help-seeking behaviors of people who has lost someone due to suicide. Aims: This study was conducted to attain a better understanding of the contributing factors, including the specific features of grief following suicide, to help-seeking behaviors of the bereaved by suicide.
Methods: The sample consisted of 82 adults bereaved by suicide 64 female; average age Instruments assessing stigmatization, shame, guilt levels, well-being, tendency to disclose emotional distress and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were used. The participants were also asked an open-ended question what professional help-seeking barriers they had encountered. Comparisons between the groups, logistic regression analysis and thematic analysis of the qualitative data were performed. : The findings revealed that bereaved participants who sought professional psychological help reported experiencing stigmatization and feeling guilty after the loss ificantly more often.
Also the showed that attitudes toward mental health specialists had the highest prognostic value in predicting help-seeking behaviors of the bereaved. The participants themselves identified the gaps in the health care system as main barriers to seeking help. Conclusion: The challenge ly spread notion that stigmatization, guilt and shame after suicide can act only as help-seeking barriers. Studies show that although part of grief reactions might be seen as similar among various types of losses, the levels of perceived stigmatization, shame and guilt are usually higher among the bereaved by suicide Harwood et al.
Until the 19th century, suicide was treated as a crime as well as a sin and the suicide bereaved had to suffer not only the loss of a loved one but also some ways of punishment for the suicide Knieper, A lot has changed since then, but at least subtle ways of stigmatization, such as avoidance or rejection of the suicide bereaved, still exist Cvinar, ; Hanschmidt et al. It has been shown that stigmatization contributes to mourning problems after suicide Feigelman et al.
Frost explains that the processes of stigmatization might vary from distant to the self to internalized ones referring to the application of negative meanings of stigma to a self-concept. Internalized stigma can be operationalized as feelings of shame Hanschmidt et al. Such experiences motivate avoidance behaviors such as impulses to hide, flee or conceal oneself Wiklander et al.
Self-blaming thoughts and feelings that the bereaved should have done something to prevent the death are common among those who experienced suicide Tal et al. According to Clarkguilt can have negative psychological consequences, when it is too much for a person to bear. Excessive or chronic feelings of guilt can also lead to acts of self-punishment Fisher and Exline, As people bereaved by suicide might face many difficulties, they are often in need of help and support from their social network or from professionals Provini et al.
It was found that the bereaved by suicide might be in greater need for professional help than relatives of natural deaths De Groot et al. Receiving appropriate professional support, if it is needed, diminishes the risk of experiencing negative consequences such as emotions of sorrow, lack of energy and abandonment Schneider et al. However, there are some discrepancies between suicide bereaved people needing and receiving help.
The main problem arises when those who are in need of professional help do not seek it. Among mentioned barriers to seeking support are self-reliance, distrust of professionals, fear of being judged, reluctance to ask for help, concern for what others would think, lack of available information, poor mental health literacy, thinking no one could help or time, cost, distance Provini et al.
Poor psychological condition is one of the most motivating factors to approach a professional. On the other hand, poor health, lack of energy are also mentioned among help-seeking barriers. In the study of McMenamy et al. Meanwhile, Wilson and Marshall found that the bereaved who were most in need of help received it. So the question if those bereaved who are most in need of help approach it remains open. It has also been claimed that more favorable attitudes toward mental health professionals are positively related to intention to seek help and to actual help-seeking behavior Fischer and Farina, ; Elhai et al.
However, we know very little about what attitudes people bereaved by suicide hold toward seeking professional help Drapeau et al. Another factor often associated with the pursuit of psychological support is the tendency of a person to reveal personally relevant information related to distress Kahn and Hessling, ; Kahn et al. Studies confirm the ificance of the tendency to disclose distress to the attitudes and intentions to seek professional psychological counseling Vogel and Wester, ; Nam et al. Research reveals that opening up emotions related to complicated bereavement can help to unblock the grief process Wagner et al.
Sharing intimate information can be beneficial for growth processes following a traumatic event of suicide in the family Levi-Belz, It is often hypothesized that aspect related to suicide bereavement also hinder help-seeking process. Authors suggest that social stigma or shame might become serious help-seeking barriers of suicide-bereaved individuals and people after suicide attempt Wiklander et al.
In their meta-analysis Hanschmidt et al. However, the understanding of these mechanisms is still theoretical. Most of the hypotheses come from other studies investigating, for example, help-seeking and stigma among those with mental health disorders. But little is known regarding help-seeking behaviors of people bereaved by suicide Drapeau et al. Some from research could as well contradict formerly mentioned ideas as the bereaved who go to therapies could also be those who feel more guilt or stigmatization. Studies show that those bereaved who receive sufficient professional support report less feelings of guilt Schneider et al.
What is more, professional help can help to reduce tension related to stigma Miller and Kaiser, Taking this intowe find it important to investigate the role of the aspects related to suicide bereavement to seeking help from professionals in the context of other potentially relevant factors. More knowledge in this field would ensure that scientifically based practical recommendations that best fit the needs and interests of the bereaved could be provided.
Furthermore, such studies are especially relevant in Lithuania that has one of the highest suicide rates, underdeveloped postvention resources Klimaite et al.
We raise the hypothesis that those suicide-bereaved who 1 feel less stigmatized, ashamed, guilty after the loss, 2 have lower scores of well-being, 3 are more inclined to reveal distressing information to others and 4 have more positive attitudes toward specialists, are more prone to seek help from mental health professionals. Also we want to investigate whether the mentioned constructs have ificant value in predicting if a person had been seeking professional psychological help after the suicide.
In addition, we aimed to reveal which barriers to seeking help from professionals the participants identify themselves.
The average time since suicide was Participants were divided into two subsamples by usage of professional psychological help after suicide. No other information regarding help received was required e. Participants were recruited nationally via associations of the bereaved by suicide, social media websites, e-mail groups, mental health professionals and snowball sampling.
To ensure higher response rates participants could choose between filling in online survey or getting a printed copy by mail.
All the participants were contacted by a member of the research team by e-mail or phone who explained the aim of the study, participation conditions voluntary basis, confidentiality, prerogative to refuse participation at any time and agreed on participation type online or paper. Then the participants were provided a link to the self-administered survey site or sent a paper questionnaire by mail, which both contained the study consent form.
Research team was prepared to provide participants with information about professional help contacts if needed. Up to two reminder e-mails were sent or phone calls were made if participants failed to respond. Grief Experience Questionnaire GEQ Barrett and Scott, is a self-administered instrument measuring various components of grief, including those that have been more associated with grief after suicide.
From the original GEQ scale Bailley et al. For the purposes of the study we used Stigmatization 10 itemsShame seven items and Guilt six items subscales of the GEQ. Total score of the scale varies from 0 towhere a percentage score of 0 represents worst possible, whereas a score of represents best possible quality of life.
The item DDI measures the degree to which a person discloses vs. Among the present data, coefficient alpha for scores from the DDI was 0. Total score ranges from zero to 30, with higher score indicating more favorable attitudes toward seeking professional help. Questions measuring demographic, loss-related and help-seeking variables were included in the analysis too. Data were analyzed using SPSS Categorical data are reported as percentages, and continuous variables are reported as means and their standard deviations.
Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between variables. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of chosen factors on the likelihood that respondents would report that they contacted a mental health professional after suicide of a loved one. An open-ended question was analyzed by performing thematic analysis based on the steps singled out by Braun and Clarke The double-coding procedure was chosen to ensure the reliability in this study.
If coding discrepancies were found, they were discussed with the help of additional experts in suicidology, final decisions were made. Such indicate that described characteristics were not ificantly important in predicting help-seeking behaviors in this sample. indicated that stigmatization was positively associated with guilt and shame, and negatively related to well-being.
As well as, more positive attitudes toward help-seeking were positively associated with a tendency to disclose oneself Table 1. A MANOVA was conducted comparing levels of stigmatization, shame, guilt, well-being, self-disclosure and attitudes toward help-seeking for groups of help-seekers and non-help-seekers.
Moreover, the demonstrated ificant differences between groups: help-seeking group experienced higher levels of stigmatization and guilt, as well as had more positive attitudes toward seeking help Table 2. Table 2. of comparing the scores of the variables by help-seeking behaviors of people bereaved by suicide. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of factors that were found ificant in analysis on the likelihood that respondents would report that they sought professional psychological help after the suicide.
The model contained three independent variables stigmatization, guilt and attitudes. As shown in Table 3only the attitudes toward seeking help from professionals had ificant predictive value. Table 3. Logistic regression predicting likelihood of seeking professional psychological help after the suicide. Themes on help-seeking barriers identified by the participants themselves are shown in Table 4. Many of the participants indicated no obstacles. The most frequently mentioned obstacles were related to the gaps in the health care system. In our hypothesis we claimed that suicide bereaved people who feel less stigmatized, ashamed and guilty after the suicide of a loved one should be more prone to seek help from mental health professionals.
Our did not confirm it. On the contrary, it revealed that those bereaved who sought professional support had higher stigmatization and guilt levels. Although the regression analysis did not show the prognostic value of the constructs, differences between the groups of individuals who were and were not seeking help might indicate that stigma and guilt can even act as factors motivating the decision to seek support from professionals.Seek white female who needs lt assistance
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